The hip joint consists of the acetabulum of the hip bone and the femoral head of the femur. There is a glenoid lip attached to the circumference of the acetabulum to deepen the depth of the articular fossa, thus strengthening the joints and the thick and tough joint capsule. The anterior part of the femoral neck is entirely in the articular capsule, while the posterior part is outside the joint capsule. As the posterior and underneath of the joint capsule is thinner, and no tough ligaments and muscles are strengthened, a weak point is formed. When the thigh is abducted with external rotation or accompanied by internal rotation, the hip dislocation is formed under the action of violence, that is, the femoral head is removed here and causes the common posterior dislocation of the hip joint.
The main ligaments of the 1. hip joints
(1) iliac femoral ligament: long and tough, inverted "V" shape, located in front of the joint capsule, which restricts the excessive extension of the thigh. The medial part restricts the abduction of the thigh, while the lateral part restricts the abduction and rotation of the thigh.
(2) the femoral ligament is triangular, situated in the medial part of the joint capsule and iliac femoral ligament. The ligament limits the outreach and external movement of the thigh.
(3) the femoral ligament: thinner, located at the back of the joint, restricting the adduction and internal rotation of the thigh.
The movement characteristics of the 2. hip joints
The hip joint is a typical socket joint. The movement should be quite flexible, but in order to adapt to the physiological needs, it supports the body weight, so its joint fossa is deep, the joint capsule is thick and tough, so that the motion amplitude of the hip joint (adduction, abduction, internal rotation, external rotation) is limited, and the joint is not very flexible. As a ball socket joint (multiaxial joint), the hip joint can move flexion, extension, adduction, abduction, rotation and circular motion along three axes.
(1) the hip joint along the frontal axis, the thighs can be flexion and extension movement, the motion range of the forward flexion is 1140, the range of the thigh flexion at the knee is the largest, the front of the Yin can reach the anterior abdominal wall; when the knee is stretched, the muscle tension in the posterior part of the femoral head is restricted, and the thighs can only be flexed 80. Due to the limitation of iliac ligament, the extension of the thigh is only 32.
(2) the hip joint can be adduced and abduced along the sagittal axis and thigh. Due to the restriction of the iliac ligament and the upper part of the joint capsule, the adduction is limited by the disgraced ligament and the medial part of the iliac ligament, so the range of the thigh movement is small and only immortal. The range of adduction movement is related to the extensor and flexion of the thigh. When the thigh is flexion, the range of motion increases and the range of motion decreases when the thigh is extended.
(3) the hip joint moves along the vertical axis, and the thigh can rotate in and out of the hip. Due to the limitation of ligament and joint capsule, the range of internal rotation is very small, only 100-15. The range of external rotation is slightly larger than that of internal rotation, which is only 35.
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